Empire of the Sea c. 1000 BCE-300 BCE
Before we begin, Where have we been and where are we going?..... Complete the summarizer by clicking the file to the right---------------------------------------------------->
7.17. On a map of the Mediterranean world, locate Greece, Asia Minor, Crete, Phoenicia, the Aegean and Red Sea, (On a modern map, locate Greece, Crete, Turkey, Lebanon, and Syria.
7. 18 Identify the Phoenicians as the successors of the Minoans as leaders in dominating maritime trade in the Mediterranean from c.1000-300 BC/BCE. Describe how the Phoenician writing system was the first alphabet (with 22 symbols for consonants) and the precursor of the first complete alphabet developed by the ancient Greeks (with symbols representing both consonants and vowels
What are the major achievements of the Phoenicians?
Phoenicians: Reading Comprehension
In what ways does the craftsman continue to make glass in the Phoenician way?
Using vocabulary: Describe Phoenician Glass. How is it made? What is it used for? Why did people want it? Where do you see glass still?
The Phoenicians learned the art of glass making from the Egyptians but had rich deposits of quartz. Quartz makes glass translucent, not opaque. They also specialized in making colored glass which was opaque. They pretty much were the best glass makers around.
Explain in your own words.
How did the Phoenicians become the masters of the sea?
How did the Phoenicians invent the alphabetic principle?
Literacy: The Phoenicians created the alphabetic principle which simplified reading and writing in the ancient world. This lowered the status of the scribe and increased Literacy throughout the ancient world. What would would life be like if the Phoenicians did not unlock the keys to literacy for all people?
Other Languages of the time were hard to learn:
-Cuneiform (100's of symbols)
-Hierogylphics (Egypt) some equaled just sounds.
-Phoenician's needed an easy way to record trading transactions
-the Phoenicians contact with the Egyptians inspired them. Only instead of symbols representing entire words, they represented single syllables (sounds)
-This made it easy to transcribe new words from other cultures (helped trading efficiency)
-Study of speech sounds and their relation to letter is called Phonics (Phonics=Phoenicians)
-Spread the alphabet throughout the Mediterranean world, Greeks added vowels and perfected it.
-Since the Phoenicians traded with everyone, cultures throughout the Mediterranean were eager to learn the new way, so its spread quickly.
SUMMARIZE: How and Why did the Alphabet develop?
The Ancient Israelites:c.2000-BC/BCE-70 AD/CE
7.19 On a historical map of the Mediterranean locate Asia Minor, Greece, and Mesopotamia, the kingdom of the Hittites, and ancient Israel and Egypt, (On a modern map locate Greece, Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Lebanon, the area covered by the Palestinean Authority, Syria and Turkey,
Tracing the roots of Judaism
7.20 Identify the ancient Israelites, or Hebrews, trace their migrations from the land of Mesopotamia to the land called Canaan, and explain the role of Abraham and Moses in their migration, beliefs and history.
Abraham discovers God.
History told through a holy book
The oldest written religion in the world
The story of the Jews:
-God speaks to Abraham and tells him he created Heaven and Earth, He is the center of the universe.
God gave Abraham a mission and made a covenant.
=Abraham is the father of the Jews
-people who believe in only one God
-before everyone was polytheistic.
It's confusing but...
The ______________ =
_______ (they're all the same)
The Torah: Ancient Jewish scripture that guides the lives of those that worship
History Vs Religion/Beliefs.
The Torah is the same as the Old Testament (1st part of the Christian Bible)
The story of the Jews is long and tragic
-From Abraham to Moses
Part I: God told Abraham to leave Mesopotamia (city state of UR) and go to the land of Canaan (This would be their peoples promised land)
Part II. God tests Abraham:
God tested Abrahams faith by asking him to sacrafice his son Issac. He almost did it but an angel saved him. He passed the test!
Part III. God promised to protect Abraham's people if they devote their lives to him and only him (monotheism) They lived in Canaan for 100 years until mother nature takes them to...
Part IV: Abraham's grandson Jacob took over his mission to lead the Jews. Years of famine in Canaan led them to Egypt. They lived good at first but then they were enslaved.
Part V: In Egypt The Pharaoh needed to build the ________: so he enslaved the Jews. He also ordered all Jewish boys to be drowned in the Nile: Why do you think he did this? According to the Bible and Torah one boy survived.
Part VI. Moses saw a burning bush (it was God) God told him to lead the Israelites out of Egypt, so he asked the Pharaoh. What do you think the Pharoah said?
Part VII. to help the Jews out of Egypt God sent to Plagues. Plagues=problems.
Plague #10: all first born children except those with the mark of blood over the doorway will die. (the Isrealites did this, the Egyptians did not, God passed over them) The pharaoh's son died. This convinced him to let the Jews leave, but then he changed his mind.
Part IIX: On their way out they were being chased but Moses parted the Red Sea, and drowned the Egpytian Army (find the Red Sea)
On their way back to Canaan Moses went to Mt. Sinai and received some rules from God (There were ten of them)
-They were a covenant
-They explained what was wrong and right
-They were moral laws.
SUMMARIZE Whose who?:
Abraham: led his people to the promised land (Mesopotamia->Canaan)
Issac: almost sacraficed!
Jacob: famine came and he led the Jews to Egypt
Moses: led the Jews back to Canaan
Use new vocabulary to describe Jewish history.
Definition: continued effort in the face of adversity and challenges.
Kid Friendly: to keep trying even when things get tough.
Definition: The systematic mistreatment of an individual or group:
Kid Friendly: bullying or blaming people for their differences and beliefs
Definition: to maintain, protect, or keep something that is sacred.
Kid Friendly: taking care of things you care about.
Finding Text Evidence
7.21 Describe the monotheistic religion of the Israelites
A. the belief that there is one God
B. the Ten Commandments
C. the emphasis on individual worth and personal responsibility
D. the belief that all people must adhere to the same moral obligations, whether ruler or
E. the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) as part of the history of early Israel.
7.22 Describe the unification of the tribes of Israel under Kings, Saul, David and Solomon including David’s founding of Jerusalem as his capital city in c.1000BC/BCE and the building of the first temple by Solomon
The story continues...
The 12 grandsons of Jacob
created the first Jewish Tribes. when they returned to Canaan they were united
1. King Saul: The first king of Israel: but 12 Tribes of the Jews quarrel and over fundamental differences
2. King David: an orphan who defeated the Philistine giant goliath, unified the Jews and founded Jerusalem as its holy city.
3. King Solomon: wise, builds great temple, establishes Jerusalem as a wealthy trading hub.
After Solomon the kingdom splits in half. The Northern half is Israel and the bottom is Judah (Jews)
-The Assyrians conquer Israel
-The Bablylonians under Nebuchadnezzar conquer Judah
= Exile: Jews were forced to leave to and live in Babylon.
Persians take over all of Mesopotamia and allow the Jews to return and live in peace...They withstand an occupation of the Greek empire and rebuild their temple
Explain the expulsion/dispersion of the Jews to other lands (also called diaspora) and the destruction of the second temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD/CE and the renaming of the country by the Romans
_-The Romans force the jews to disperse over hundreds of years: leave or die.
-They crucify thousands of Jews (including Christian holy prophet Jesus Christ)
-This has lasting implications to this day because Jews relocated throughout the world.
-Lasting Implications: The Jews are expelled from their homeland for the next thousand years until after the German Halocaust in 1945
Israelites Notes and Materials
David and Goliath:
TedTalk: The story of the Underdog: Revisited by acclaimed Sociologist
TedTalk: The story of the Underdog: Revisited by acclaimed Sociologist